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Science Must Be Rescued From Its Guilds

February 23, 2008

Jan 8 2008

http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=14988&st=135&#entry299706

Science Must Be Rescued From Its Guilds,
from its host of technicians, politicians and business entrepreneurs

A. New route for heredity bypasses DNA?!?!?!
And additional anachronistic concepts…

http://www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S19/94/60E39/index.xml
Work with the singled-celled Ciliates, pond-dwelling protozoa.
( ()notes inserted by DH )

(1) "These ciliates (eukaryotes) cells have two nuclei. One, the active (macronucleus,MAC) nucleus, contains the DNA needed to carry out all the non-reproductive functions of the cell, such as metabolism. The second, the germline nucleus (micronucleus,MIC), like humans' sperm and egg, is home to the DNA needed for sexual reproduction (for the exchange of meiotic products during conjugation, sexual reproduction).
(In spirotrichous, formerly hypotrichous, ciliates, the MAC genome consists of thousands of gene-sized chromosomes, also termed ‘nanochromosomes’, which exist in high copy number, ~1000 copies. These molecules are assembled from sequences in the MIC genome, which are called macronuclear destined sequences, MDSs.)
When two of these ciliate cells mate, the active (non-reproductive) nucleus gets destroyed, and must somehow be reconstituted in their offspring in order for them to survive. The germline nucleus contains abundant DNA, yet 95 percent of it is thrown away during regeneration of a new active nucleus, in a process that compresses a pretty big genome (one-third the size of the human genome) into a tiny fraction of the space. This leaves only 5 percent of the organism's DNA free for encoding functions. Yet this small hodgepodge of remaining DNA always gets correctly chosen and then descrambled by the cell to form a new, working genome in a process (described as "genome acrobatics") that is still 'not well understood', but extremely deliberate and precise."

(2) Unbelievable. Read the following para. Decipher it, if you can…
Princeton biologists wanted to decipher how the CELL controls ITS processes, such as the splicing order of DNA segments, and to increase the understanding of natural cellular regulatory processes, such as which segments of DNA are retained versus lost during development, which requires reorganizing its genome WITHOUT RESORTING TO ITS ORIGINAL GENETIC PROGRAM.

(3) Nevertheless this work led to some interesting conclusions (IMO unjustified by this work), suggesting again what has been suggested repeatedly (IMO justified) since the 1980's. i.e.:
"This wonderful discovery showed for the first time that RNA can provide sequence information that guides accurate recombination of DNA, leading to reconstruction of genes and a genome that are "necessary for the organism", said Meng-Chao Yao, director of the Institute of Molecular Biology at Taiwan's Academia Sinica. "It reveals that genetic information can be passed on to following generations via RNA, in addition to DNA."

(4) And it led to re-suggesting what I posted July 19, 2003 In biologicalEvolution forum:
"Here is an RNA update review you should not miss
http://www.nature.com/horizon/rna/background.html

Per my 'armchair scientist' conception of Life, even prior to any browsing thru this review, RNA organism is both a prime pre-DNA organism archaic edition of a later, stabler DNA gene, and also the DNA organism's tool. In pre-DNA life this RNA edition lived independently and/or cooperatively with other RNAs. The consequent, more complex, DNA life evolved into symbiotically-associated collectively-dependent genes, though, and the original primary RNA forms have been retained as tools for their consequent stabler collective-commune members DNA editions…" DH.

B.
Note who is involved in the peer-view-commission-publication of this work: Princeton University, the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health and the School of Engineering and Applied Science senior thesis research fund.

C.
Science is not what it used to be. With the exponential growth of electronics-assisted/based literature, of communications and entertainment, and of technology-based industries, the number of people involved in various ways in 'technology' has been increasing exponentially. However, simultaneously the conceptual and real-life divide that distinguished the progeny technology from its parent science has been undergoing accelerated shredding by the guilds of technicians trained for and employed by the ever growing technologies.
Per my idea of 'scientism': "a method or doctrine characteristic of scientists, and the proposition that scientific methods of studying and practicing natural sciences should be used in all areas of investigation and conduct", the biggest offender – THE underminer-subverter of humanity's scientism, is the strictly politically-correct 'spiritual' AAAS.
And IMO the stand and activities of the AAAS lead directly to banalizing of science, to its 'popularization', for fitting it within the required general public framework of esteemed rating as in the entertainment and in various public-relations industries.

D. For the sake of humanity science must be revitalized.

Science Must Be Rescued From Its Guilds!

suggesting,
Dov Henis
==============================
Feb 1 2008

http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=14988&st=150&#entry307281

The Evolutionary 'Role' Of Gene Variants,
Of Genes And Human Conceit, And
Of Inadequate Comprehension

The following 1,2,3 are are from
http://www.physorg.com/news121010270.html

Single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP = a variant DNA sequence in which the purine or pyrimidine base (as cytosine) of a single nucleotide has been replaced by another such base (as thymine)

1) "Yet remarkably, the versions of the SNPs that increase recombination in men decrease it in women, and vice versa."

DH: Of course. Expected. Man and woman are different phenotypes of the human genotype. Each phenotype drives for its own survival…

2) "…enable the variants to help to maintain a fundamental tension crucial for evolutionary success: promoting the generation of significant diversity within a portion of the population…"

DH: The 'variants' do not have cognizance and they do not give a damn about evolutionary success or promotion of diversity. They are organisms, with an innate darwinian drive to survive. Plain and simple. Common sense, does not require academic courses, degrees, professional guild…)

3) "…evolution appears to place a premium on the generation of human diversity…".

DH: Unfounded 'pseudosophisticated verbiage. Evolution of life is but a minute component of the evolution of the universe. Cosmic evolution is the evolution of energy, and within it life's evolution is the evolution of genes-genomes, in a losing attempt to survive, to maintain – as long as possible – pockets of constrained energy that would otherwise expand and dilute with the whole mass and energy of the cosmos

Dov Henis
=====================
On "Social Genes"
Feb 15 2008

http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=14988&st=150&#entry311577

More 'Pseudosophisticated Gibberish

A. "Social Genes" Again…
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-02/ru-mh021308.php
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-02/bcom-cie020708.php

– "This pool of genes is going to allow us to understand the genetic architecture of social behavior," said Strassmann.

– "Things are a lot more complicated in nature than we thought” said Shaulsky.

B. Come on, open your eyes and mind…

Again, Life system(s) evolve with Design, with the design and culture selected by the evolution of Life's prime organisms, the genes-genome, for surviving as long as possible, for lengthening as much as possible the period of constrainig their planet's biosphere energy, even if in a hopeless, eventual losing, struggle to maintain their planet bio.

And again, how sad it is that research refers to, and comprehends, genes-genomes organisms in pre-Copernicus pre-Galileo term "genetic codes"… with stubborn insistence on seeing the naked emperor's new clothes, in seeing genes-genome not as the organisms they obviously are but as "DNA sequences, genetic materials or genetic blueprints…"

Suggesting,
Dov Henis

PS: And most important:
Come on, stop harnessing the horses at the back of the wagon. The process of "design by genes" does not start with the genes, the prime organism. It atarts with the cells' community, the second level organisms. It starts with their Culture, with the required reaction-manipulation-adaptation required for survival in their environments. This info is fed back to the genes, who consequently select the capabilities required for survival.
DH
=============================

CNV, Professional Cataract And Verbiage

Rescue Science From Its Guilds!

Feb 21 2008

http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=14988&st=165&#entry313689

A.

CNV = Copy Number Variation
cfv = community family variation

http://www.sanger.ac.uk/humgen/cnv/

The questions that drive CNV and cfv researches are:

1.
CNV: How much copy number variation (CNV) exists between human genomes?

cfv: What is the extent of variations/differences between families per 50,000-population per each of the major nations on Earth?

2.
CNV: How best can CNVs be incorporated into whole genome association studies?

cfv: How best can cfv (the above information, systemized) be incorporated into the study of characteristics of major nations?

3.
CNV: What is the contribution of copy number variation to genetic disease?

cfv: What is the contribution of cfv to inter-nationals coexistence problems?

4.
CNV: What is the relative contribution of different mutational mechanisms to CNV?

cfv: What is the relative contribution of different culture-caused human-group-phenotypes to cfv?

5.
CNV: What is the genomic impact of CNV on gene expression?

cfv: What is the evolutionary impact of cfv on the characteristic national phenotypic performances of each of the major nations?

6.
CNV: What role has CNV played in recent human evolution?

cfv: What role has cfv played in recent humanity's evolution?

B. Again, Science Must Be Rescued From Its Guilds (Jan 8 2008)

http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=14988&st=135&#entry299706

After all, CNV is about ORGANISMS, Genes, and about communal associations of organisms, Genomes, and about the state of the organisms and their communes in a phase of their Darwinian Evolution.

They have been and are undergoing Darwinian evolution since they have turned, due to then prevailing energetic circumstances, from chemical olygomers into prolyferous genes…

Dov Henis

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